The course is given in the first period of the autumn semester in odd years.
The course is given in English
The course deals with galaxies of different kinds regarding structure, chemical evolution and the interplay between stars and the interstellar medium. Models of active galactic nuclei are described as well as theories for galaxy formation. Methods for determining distances and masses are discussed as well as the effects and properties of dark matter in galaxies and galaxy clusters. Observations and models of the large scale structure of the universe are discussed and compared.